Table 1.

Biochemical and cellular diagnosis and monitoring of acute infections.a

Some candidate biomarkers
  • White blood cell counts and differentials (neutrophils)

  • Acute phase proteins, e.g., CRP, SAAb

  • Cytokines, e.g., IL6, IL8, G-CSF, TNF-α, IP10

  • Inflammatory cell markers, e.g., MPO, lactoferrin, HNL, lysozyme, HBP (azurocidin), soluble CEACAM8, α-defensins, calprotectin

  • Adhesion molecules, e.g., E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1

  • Others, e.g., PCT, LBP, TREM-1, TRAIL

  • Cell surface markers, e.g., CD64, CD35, CD11b

  • Lactate

  • a The table was modified from reference (4) with permission.

  • b SAA, serum amyloid A; G-CSF, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; MPO, myeloperoxidase; HBP, heparin binding protein; CEACAM8, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 8; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; LBP, LPS-binding protein; TREM, triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells.