Table 1.

Criteria used for categorizing participants.

Clinical populationInclusion criteria
High riskMust belong to one of the listed increased-risk groups for syphilis.
Occupational risks:
• Tattoo artists
• Morticians
• Commercial sex worker
Sexual risks:
• Individuals with multiple sex partners
• Individuals sharing sex with partner(s) with a history of syphilis
• Male-on-male sex partners (male homosexuals)
• Individuals sharing sex with HIV-infected partner(s)
• Individuals sharing sex with commercial sex workers (prostitutes)
• Individuals diagnosed with STDs
Behavioral risks:
• IV drug users (current or past)
• Individuals sharing straw cocaine
• Individuals with a history of incarceration
Low riskNo identified occupational, sexual, or behavioral risks as described above under the high-risk cohort.
Healthy populationThese groups may include specimens from healthy subjects (in which specimens were submitted for “well check-ups”), specimens submitted for premarital testing, and/or unselected specimens from hospital patients submitted for routine chemistry.
Appropriate answers to a defined health status questionnaire.
Staged value (well-characterized specimens representing the various stages of syphilis)Must have medical documentation of syphilis stage including treatment or no treatment confirmation.